Data also reports on the economic

magnitude of this problem:

194,500 deaths a year in the EU due to miss-dose and non-adherence of

prescribed medication. Non-adherence

is estimated to cost the European

Union 125bn annually 19;

Poor adherence has been estimated to cost the US healthcare system about

$290 billion a year 20.

Table II illustrates trends and challenges

considered to have major impact in

community pharmacy practice:

Table II Trends and


Rationale Consequences

Demographic and

Societal Factors

Growing number of elderly population in developed

countries and some

developing countries.

Increased life expectancy;

Higher standards of living; Increased use of technology.

Elderly patients requiring more (and possibly yet

undiscovered) pharmaceutical

products and services;

Greater expectations from what pharmacists/pharmacies

can offer and ways to deliver

their products/provide their


Disease Burden


Prevalent chronic diseases are similar throughout the world,

with diabetes, cardiovascular

disease and asthma

representing a large


Cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide;

Communicable diseases such as HIV, Tuberculosis;

Greater need for immunization(s) and



Pharmacists are expected to provide targeted interventions

for the most prevalent


Pharmacies are expected to contribute to decrease cancer

deaths by implementing

evidence-based strategies for

cancer prevention, early

detection of cancer and

management of patients with


Higher pharmacist participation in awareness

campaigns and Directly