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evidence;

Adjustment of the pharmacy curriculum around the world; Core competence and differential competence of pharmacists

based on national needs.

Pharmaceutical industry

and innovation Factors

Public confidence in pharmaceuticals may decline as the questions of efficacy, safety and counterfeiting become more

prominent. In parallel, incentives for innovation are evolving

and diversifying with increased support from public private

partnerships;

Increased knowledge of genomics and how it applies to medication prescribing and management.

Trends in Service

Development

Acknowledgement of different needs for competencies of pharmacy graduates for different areas of practice;

Possibility of pharmacy-based laboratory testing in order to construct a dosing schedule, including specific dose and times

for administration;

Need for global drug monitoring standards for those drugs that absolutely require laboratory testing and monitoring;

Enhancement of drug therapy adherence; Post-marketing surveillance and adverse event monitoring and

the role of pharmacist in data collection and alerting;

Pharmacies as an entry-point to primary care and triage decision-making;

Environmental issues around waste, pollution, packaging disposal;

Pharmaceutical services based on new remuneration systems. Collaboration Factors Building on current partnerships, opportunities exist for

further collaborative efforts.

Rational use of medicines requires that patients receive medications appropriate to their clinical

needs, in doses that meet their own individual requirements for an adequate period of time, and at

the lowest cost to them and their community.

World Health Organization (WHO)

┬┤However, WHO estimates that more than

half of all medicines are prescribed,

dispensed or sold inappropriately, and that

half of all patients fail to take them

correctly. The overuse, underuse or misuse

of medicines results in wastage of scarce

resources and widespread health hazards9.